Competing Consumers Design Pattern in Azure

Challenge

An application running in the cloud is expected to handle a large number of requests. Rather than process each request synchronously, a common technique is for the application to pass them through a messaging system to another service (a consumer service) that handles them asynchronously. This strategy helps to ensure that the business logic in the application isn’t blocked while the requests are being processed.

The number of requests can vary significantly over time for many reasons. A sudden increase in user activity or aggregated requests coming from multiple tenants can cause an unpredictable workload. At peak hours a system might need to process many hundreds of requests per second, while at other times the number could be very small. Additionally, the nature of the work performed to handle these requests might be highly variable. 

Solution

Use a message queue to implement the communication channel between the application and the instances of the consumer service. The application posts requests in the form of messages to the queue, and the consumer service instances receive messages from the queue and process them. This approach enables the same pool of consumer service instances to handle messages from any instance of the application. 

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